The purpose of this paper is to provide additional insight based on a critical reection of the interview as a research method drawing upon Alvessons discussion from the neopositivist, romanticist and localist interview perspectives. Illustration of three metaphors of the interview qram 8,3 258 guided by a meta-theoretical framework in which the research interview is viewed as a socially, linguistically and subjectively rich and complex situation. Thus, the interview produces situated understanding grounded in specic interactional episodes, which depend on characteristics of the interviewer, such as gender, race, socio-economic class and ethnicity (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998). When you mention competition, do you then think of a sportsmanlike or a destructive competition? (2000 A Practical Guide for Students and Professionals, Open University Press, Buckingham. First, the neopositivist view sees the research interview as a tool to be used as effectively as possible by capable researchers establishing a context-free truth about objective reality producing relevant responses, with minim al bias. For example, there are well-established ethical guidelines for research with human subjects in most university research settings, such as in Canada, Australia and the. Thus, the research interview is an enriching experience for interviewees, who through dyadic interplay with the interviewer, obtain new insights into their life world and the research theme (Kvale, 1996,.
It is an inescapable fact of using interviews in the research process. This right to privacy and condentiality should be inviolate, especially when interviewees are employees talking about their work life, where the interviewer should enter into an agreement with the interviewee not to disclose anything to the employer. Alvessons insight and critique of the research interview Philosophers and social theorists have critiqued interviews as a research methodology focusing their criticisms on the problems of representation, the nature of language, the inseparability of researcher and knowledge, and the problems of writing. Interviewees must be put at ease so that they will speak freely, as it were off the record, notwithstanding that the researcher is taking notes and openly tape-recording the conversation. (1998 Accounting and organizations: realizing the richness of eld research, Journal of Management Accounting Research, Vol. On the contrary, we have identied that the research process is an interactive one between interviewers and interviewees as dyadic relationships through discourse are developed. Second, the interviewer must learn ways to keep the discussion going and, more importantly, avoid questioning which dampens the discourse. He also cautions that it is preferable to wait until after the interview to elaborate further on the nature of the study. The priest said that the three of them should pray.
Needs to be collected from other sources such as web pages and the media. The unstructured interview process shapes to the individual situation and context, intending to make the interviewee feel relaxed and unassessed (Hannabuss, 1996). The interviewer tries to remain open to new and unforeseen phenomenon rather than imposing ready-made frameworks or categories. Cover what you have just expressed? Accordingly, Giddens (1984,.
Covert versus overt roles) and how the interview data will be used. The long interview inquires about cultural categories and shared meanings, differing from the in-depth interview, which is concerned with individual affective states and is practiced mostly by professionals such as psychologists. 17) identies conversation or discourse analysis as types of localism. The interview process is regarded as a context-stripping procedure in which the interviewer pretends that the context does not affect the meaning of questions and answers (Gubrium and Holstein, 2001). Building on the general advice giving literature concerning the design of questions, we discuss how an alternative understanding helps us to apply the interview method in a more productive way taking into account pragmatic constraints along with some ethical considerations in conducting research interviews. These three approaches represent broadly shared views of the research interview although there are a variety of denitions in the eld of qualitative research regarding these three perspectives. It would be a highly ambitious endeavor to provide a comprehensive review of the literature given the substantial body of research on the use of the interview method from functionalist and intepretivist perspectives (Arksey and Knight, 1999; Keats, 2000;. Because of the behavioral nature of business research, guidelines similar to practicing psychologists may be necessary to ensure the interviewee suffers no subtle injury, such as diminution of self-esteem, nor experiences undue stress during the interview.
Most texts on qualitative methods propose a list of interview questions and the following typology is an integrated list based on similar concerns embedded in most typologies of interview questions, drawing on sources such as Kvales (1996,. By discussing the interview method in a reective way, our paper contributes to a growing body of work (Hammersley, 2003) that sees the interview itself as a topic for enquiry rather than merely as a resource or research method. Even when it is not the primary method of data collection in a quantitative study, the interview method is employed often as a pilot study to gather preliminary data before a survey is designed. Im Untersuchungsdesign werden neben dem Forschungsziel die Erhebungsmethode, die Dauer und die Kosten der Studie festgelegt. What is so obviously missing, of course, are physical resources. 496) A single case Structured interviews Unstructured interviews Semi-structured interviews qram 8,3 260 the etic outsider and the emic insider perspectives, there and back again. In essence, the researcher inuences at every moment the resultant interview data.
The qualitative research interview 245 Therefore, the romanticist can argue that the potential for bias is weak because as much of the truth as possible is revealed (Alvesson and Deetz, 2000,. (1998 Qualitative program evaluation, practice and promise, in Denzin,.K. One metaphor sees the researcher as a miner who probes for nuggets of essential meaning, just like a miner unearths buried metal. The qualitative research interview 263 Rubin,.J. 11) notes: Qualitative interviewers have to learn to tolerate silence. Even when the interviewer and the interviewee seem to be speaking the same language, their words may have completely different cultural meanings. Available at:.